Occupational Health and Safety - a necessary element of work
Occupational health and safety, i.e. occupational health and safety, is a set of regulations that allow for safe and hygienic performance of work in the plant. Thanks to the knowledge of health and safety rules, the employee knows how to prepare for the performance of duties at the workplace, as well as what to avoid and how to behave in an emergency (e.g. fire). Occupational health and safety covers areas such as ergonomics, technical safety, labor economics, occupational medicine and occupational psychology. The essence of OHS rules is to ensure the possibility of safe work performance in hygienic conditions. Safety can be understood as keeping the hazard under control (where the hazard is acceptable) or as a relatively safe state that complies with the safety standard. Compliance with health and safety requirements at workplaces is supervised by the National Labor Inspectorate. Regulations concerning health and safety rules and labor law are contained in section X of the Labor Code. Both employees and employers have a number of obligations to each other. In particular, the employer should ensure safe and hygienic working conditions and protect the health and life of the employee.
Health and safety - introductory training
One of the types of health and safety training is introductory training. Its goal is to familiarize the employee and introduce him to the company's environment, i.e. to explain the rules and procedures applicable in it. Hiring each new employee is associated with the obligation to conduct initial health and safety training, even though the employee already had one in the previous company. Different workplaces have different rules, but also different risks, so it is therefore necessary to undergo introductory training almost every time. Employee safety is paramount. Initial training is valid up to 12 months from the commencement of work as an employee, and managers who manage a group of people must undergo such training every 6 months. Initial training consists of general instruction and workplace instruction. General instruction is rules for all positions, it is obligatory for every employee of the company and everyone must read them. On-the-job training concerns working on a specific position. It is the employer's responsibility to conduct training for new employees. The employer must be sure that everyone in the company knows the basic safety rules. A person unfamiliar with health and safety rules can cause great damage and weaken the efficiency of the entire facility, which would definitely be against the will of the employer.
General instruction is a general explanation of health and safety rules in the workplace. It cannot be done remotely, and its duration is at least 90 minutes. All apprentices and new employees must take part in it. A specialized person with qualifications in occupational health and safety is responsible for organizing and conducting such training. However, if there is an employee in the company who has the appropriate skills, supported by authorizations, this task can be entrusted to him. As a rule, such training must be organized during the first day in a new position, and the instructor has a number of teaching aids at his disposal, such as presentations, films, projector, props and the like.
This type of training is more specialized, job-specific. In this case, the employee learns what risks are associated with the performance of a given profession and what risks await him during the performance of his duties. In addition, he / she is equipped with the knowledge of how to ensure the safety of himself and others during the work. In addition, apprentices as well as apprentices must complete this type of training. The duration of such training depends on the type of threats that occur at a given position or the length of service of this person. Professional experience of the trainee is also important. On-the-job training can be conducted by a person managing a specific group of employees, provided that he or she has the appropriate qualifications for it.
OHS - periodic training
Periodic training is a type of training conducted to update employees' knowledge with new information that has emerged over time. Persons providing such training may, after prior notice from their employer, draw attention to specific important issues. The first periodic training should, in principle, take place within one year of employment. For management positions, this cut-off period is six months. It is important to adhere to the timing of health and safety training, so it is the employer's responsibility to organize these training according to the schedule. During a possible inspection by the National Labor Inspectorate, failure to meet the deadlines of occupational health and safety training courses - the company may receive a high fine. It is therefore very important that people be appointed who would be responsible for following and monitoring the training schedule. The terms of validity of training courses vary depending on the type of work performed and may reach up to six years. Below are examples of positions with information on the validity period of the training:
- workstations - 3 years (hazardous work - 1 year),
- people in managerial positions, managing a group of people - 5 years,
- engineers, technicians, constructors - 5 years,
- office and administration employees - 6 years (sometimes it is possible to exempt from training under certain conditions)
Periodic training usually ends with an examination prepared by the trainer. Completion of periodic training results in the receipt of a certificate, which is later included in the employee's personal files. When the training takes place after the usual working hours for a given position, ie "after hours", the employee is entitled to remuneration for the so-called overtime or work in free time. Periodic training can take place both online and stationary. The online form is sometimes also referred to as e-learning. It is a very convenient method of training for the employee, as he or she can independently go through the various stages of the training and do it at the moment of the day they choose. This form of training is legally recognized for most professional groups (with the exception of blue-collar workers - due to the form of training that is required there).