Cranes and their purpose
Man, erecting higher and higher structures, wondered how to facilitate the entry to the higher floors. For the average user, climbing two or three floors was not a problem, but when there were five or six floors to climb, the problem arose. It was becoming a nuisance, so people started thinking about making things easier.
Passenger lifts, often called elevators by everyone, are devices commonly used in housing construction with a height of more than four storeys. They also serve other buildings such as health care, hotels and high-rise office buildings. They provide considerable freedom of movement around buildings, enabling the transport of people or objects. Some cranes are suitable for loading and unloading with forklifts. The crane serves stops, i.e. floors.
- Engine room,
- Electrical installation and safety devices
Lifts must meet regoristic requirements. Loading takes place with the use of devices such as massive forklifts or pallet trucks, and the transported goods weigh several tons. The crane structure should be strong enough to carry the existing weight.
We have been observing a significant increase in the mechanization of work at height for a long time. When you look back over a dozen years, advanced technologies of vertical transport devices were associated mainly with larger construction sites. Currently, we can meet them even in single-family houses.
The goods lift is one of the most popular solutions for the roofing industry. It is a platform that slides over the mast of a ladder-like structure, attached to a transportable chassis and lowered inclined onto the roof of the building. Building materials are attached to this platform to be moved to higher levels. The ease of operation of the goods lift makes them the most popular means of vertical transport for general construction and roofing companies. The high lifting capacity and working range of the goods hoist enable the transport of most building materials.
In our country, there are several common names for goods lifts, they include, among others: roof ladder, inclined winch or roofing lift.
Due to the type of tractor used, rope and chain hoists are distinguished.
Types of cranes
Goods lift - supports landing levels, which do not have control inside the cabin due to its dimensions and construction. Devices of this type are most often installed in modern and commercial buildings (warehouses, banks, factories), private (restaurants, homes, retirement homes) or public (hospitals, schools).
Passenger and goods lift - intended for the transport of goods and accompanying persons. Have a moving cabin between the guides and it is used for smooth transport of people or goods. The elevator car is lifted by a winch located in the engine room at the top of the shaft or by a jack located at the bottom of the shaft. Passenger-goods lifts are used in places where, apart from people, there is a need to transport heavy and oversized loads. These types of elevators are usually used in multi-storey buildings, warehouses or production halls.
The hospital lift is intended for transporting hospital beds with equipment, personnel and other equipment enabling the functioning of a given facility. In some elevator models, it is possible to install a 230V electric socket, which in the event of a lift failure will allow for resuscitation and emergency life saving measures. The hospital lift is characterized by the minimum dimensions of the cabin and the door and special functionalities such as priority driving. An element of the elevator's equipment is a specially mounted chair for people who have mobility problems and for the elderly to rest while riding the elevator.
The construction crane is used for vertical movement of people and loads. People or loads to be moved are in cabins or on platforms that move along vertical guides (or at a slight angle to the vertical).
After completing the training and passing the exam, the students will acquire entitlements in the field of goods and passenger lifts. During the classes, students will perform set tasks related to crane operation. The person who completes the training should follow safe working methods.
Operation of the elevator
Obtaining a decision by the investor allowing the operation of a technical device is always required, the investor and architects must take into account a number of standards and requirements. Before starting the operation of a device subject to technical inspection, the operator shall report the device in writing to the body of the competent technical inspection unit. A positive result of the acceptance test will allow for the issuance of a decision authorizing the operation of the device.
The technical supervision body must perform the following steps:
- Checking the completeness and correctness of the documentation
- Checking the conformity of the equipment of the device with the extended documentation at the place of use of the device
- Identification of devices and checking the technical condition and labeling
Technical equipment subject to technical inspection should be operated in accordance with the operating instructions and used as intended:
- In order to ensure safe operation of the device, the operator is obliged to ensure proper maintenance
- The operator should equip the device with a stationary service developed on the basis of the operating instructions and available to the operator
- Maintenance inspections should be performed not less frequently than the dates specified in the attachments
- The operator should create and keep a maintenance log for each device, kept by the maintenance technician
In a situation where all the procedures have been carried out without reservations, the authority of the competent technical inspection unit will issue a decision authorizing the operation of the device. Thus, it determines the form of technical supervision to be covered by the device. However, if the control activities show negative results of tests and performed activities, the body of the competent technical inspection unit refuses to issue a decision authorizing the operation of the device.